Real Science Radio

When Googling: Try RSR's Multiple Creation Site Search!

Welcome to Real Science Radio: Co-hosts Bob Enyart and Fred Williams talk about science to debunk evolution and to show the evidence for the creator God including from biology, genetics, geology, history, paleontology, archaeology, astronomy, philosophy, cosmology, math, and physics. (For example, mutations will give you bad legs long before you'd get good wings.) We get to debate Darwinists and atheists like Lawrence Krauss, AronRa, and Eugenie Scott. We easily take potshots from popular evolutionists like PZ Myers, Phil Plait, and Jerry Coyne. We're the home of the popular List Shows! And we interview the outstanding scientists who dare to challenge today's accepted creed that nothing created everything.

RSR's Fred Williams is back celebrating creationist advances

Mahoney's Patterns of Evidence: Moses ControversyWhile Real Science Radio's been busy with our Heat series on the global flood, Fred Williams has been noticing our street cred piling up. Dr. Brian Thomas gives us a shout out in an Acts & Facts cover story on our dinosaur soft tissue spreadsheet. Tim Mahoney thanks RSR for helping to strengthen the Patterns of Evidence Exodus argument (hear audio from the film). Then Fred recalls that molecular biologist Matthew Cserhati (with CMI as of March 2019) concedes his "orfan gene" bet with Enyart acknowledging the research trend that now points toward the RSR prediction that far fewer "related, evolutionary" genes exist than single-genome orfan genes!

* Acts & Facts RSR Shout Out: Brian Thomas' great Acts & Facts cover story article exposes another rescue device in the evolutionist's hopes of saving deep time from dinosaur soft tissue. From ICR's March 2019 issue with RSR photoshopping Brian and an excerpt onto the truncated cover...

March 2019 cover of Acts & Facts with Brian Thomas' soft tissue article excerpted...

Flat Earth Circular Logic: The Hot New Documentary!

 
Flat Earth documentary: Faith on the EdgeReal Science Radio host Bob Enyart interviews The Creation Guys Kyle Justice and Pat Roy about their latest hit, Faith on the Edge: Flat Earth Documentary. They talk to experts including:
- Apollo 16 astronaut Gen. Charlie Duke
- Astronomer Dr. Danny Faulkner
- Hebrew professor (from Christopher Cone's Calvary University!) Dr. Steven Boyd, and
- Victor Brewer, Aerial Image Solutions.
 
Some of the highlights:
- the recreation of the UK's famous Bedford Level experiment (now with accurate and predictable results)
- explaining why the Chicago skyline jumps up and down when photographed from across Lake Michigan (except for on cold days)
- watching a container ship sail toward Europe from the East Coast
- amazing astronomical observations in the southern hemisphere (including the Sun never setting!)
- the launch of a weather balloon to conduct a breakthrough experiment.
 
Faith on the Edge made an RSR staffer say, "I've got to buy this for my grandkids!). The guys also present the flat earthers' claim that they take the Bible literally, but of course, not for any of the verses that contradict their syndrome, such as that God "hangs the Earth upon nothing" and "from the rising of the sun".


And from our own rsr.org/flat-earth page...

Have you noticed that the "man in the moon"
is upside down in the southern hemisphere?

See for yourself! Compared to viewing it from the northern hemisphere, the Moon appears upside down in the southern hemisphere, which is a simple cure for the flat earth syndrome:

The Moon appears upside down in the southern hemisphere, as compared to from the northern hemisphere.

RSR Answers the HPT CRUST Heat Problem: Final

HPT Heat Series Part 5

Real Science Radio's Bob Enyart and mechanical engineer Bryan Nickle conclude their "Heat" series answering the criticism that the global flood events described by Dr. Walt Brown's Hydroplate Theory would melt the Earth's crust. The guys have been addressing four critics, Glen Kuban and Tony Reed, and young-earthers Danny Faulkner and John Baumgardner, listing their combined twenty arguments claiming the HPT would boil the oceans, cook the atmosphere, and melt the crust. Bryan and Bob complete working off their list of a dozen factors used to evaluate the heat transfer of the HPT including that expanding gas cools rapidly, the behavior of directed energy, the significance of boundary conditions, the role and behavior of supercritical water, and the adiabatic (heat-neutral) fusion by Z-pinch of light and heavy elements.

Photo of Bryan Nickel's hands around a butane torch to show directed energy* Twenty Specific Criticisms: The critic's name links to his criticism:

Glen Kuban: From the anti-creationist website called paleo.cc, argues that:

1. The release of pressurized water in the eruption of the fountains would deposit tremendous heat energy on the surface of the earth.
2. The temperature of the flood waters coming up from below, being supercritical as Walt Brown indicates, were at least 1300oF.
3. The HPT suggests that half of today's ocean waters were once below the crust so that mixture of hot SCW with the surface waters would virtually boil the oceans.
4. The massive friction from the sliding, compressing, and thickening continents would produce tremendous heat.
5. The massive lava fields and other volcanic activity occurring within the short young-earth timeframe.
6. Much of the sub-crustal water that jettisoned into the atmosphere fell back to earth as scalding rain.
7. Dramatically accelerated nuclear decay would produce lethal heat (and radiation levels).

Tony Reed, from his YouTube channel Creationism taught me real science argues that:

8. The Supercritical water would have transferred its heat to the atmosphere and scald the planet in part because although air doesn't conduct heat well, “steam conducts heat very well”.
9. A temperature differential of a few degrees produces wind and the HPT has a 1,000-degree differential so that would easily generate powerful winds that would spread the heat throughout the atmosphere.
10. The depressurizing water and the superheated steam and air would become a blast wave.
11. Water and crustal debris ejected to the upper atmosphere will not be able to cool down from the main two methods of heat transfer, conduction and convection, but only from radiation which is less effective.
12. After the first 40 days when the fountains of the great deep are no longer launching debris into space nor even into the atmosphere, but the flood level continues to rise for another 110 days so all that superheated water is going directly into the surface waters.

Danny Faulkner, astronomer at Ken Ham's Answers in Genesis, in a CRSQ paper, argues that:

13. A back-of-the-envelope calculation shows that life couldn't survive the overheating of the troposphere that would occur even if only a tiny fraction of the HPT's kinetic energy transfers from the jets to the atmosphere.
14. Water moving at the speeds Walt Brown indicates for the fountains of the great deep [escape velocity is a minimum of 7 mps and up to 32 mps to launch the retrograde comets] would produce tremendous turbulence which would slow down at least a portion of the water jet and transfer kinetic energy to the atmosphere.
15. The leading edge [or the top] of the jet of water would transfer momentum to the atmosphere slowing the leading edge producing a a cascading effect slowing the water below it, and so on, causing the jet to spread horizontally.
16. The HPT posits fountains of water moving at Mach 150 such that Bernoulli’s equation indicates a very large pressure difference that will drive air into the jet and thermalize the kinetic energy.

John Baumgardner, the creation geophysicist formerly with Los Alamos Nat'l Laboratory, who went on to work for Henry Morris at ICR, argues that:

17. Regarding the HPT's origin of Earth's radioactivity, the extreme heat released from radioactive fission of super-heavy elements would melt the Earth's crust.
18. Using Dr. Brown's own energy estimate on the order of 1030J of kinetic energy carried by the fast neutrons from super-heavy element fission [see Bryan Nickel's video for context explaining that these neutrons produced the deuterium in comets and in today’s oceans] results in the kinetic energy of the fission fragments being estimated at 33 times that of these fast neutrons with the waste heat arising from these fission fragments alone being on the order of 1031J, enough to vaporize the entire granite crust hundreds of times over.
19. This waste heat from the fission of super-heavy elements would be dwarfed, by a factor of ten, by the much larger amount of waste heat released in the fusion process which the HPT proposes for the creation of the super-heavy elements.
20. Thermal energy on the order of 1030J dumped into the [then estimated at] 3/4-mile thick layer of water beneath the granitic crust, being ionized, would turn into a hot plasma and be so energetic it would blow off the Earth's crust.

* RSR to AIG, ICR, CMI, & CRS: ARD melts CPT. Dr. Walt Brown's creationist critics support a competing flood model called Catastrophic Plate Tectonics which has its own heat problem with CPT advocates admitting that accelerated nuclear decay would melt the crust. They appeal to miracles first, for the primary mechanisms of CPT, and secondly, to remove the heat. HPT, in contrast, observes physical processes that mitigate heat. Dr. Brown, incidentally, received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Heat Transfer division in their engineering department while working in MIT's heat transfer lab. This program is the eleventh installment in our ongoing Answers metaseries.

* Twelve Factors Help to Answer Flood Heat Objections: This list provides a roadmap for the listener to know where we will be headed over the next few episodes as we evaluate the heat consequences of the hydroplate theory.

1. Fluids cool rapidly as they expand (as in from below the crust to the surface) as well described by the Joule-Thomson effect.
2. Directed energy comprised of molecules with great momentum strongly resists change in direction.
3. Boundary conditions, rather than total amount of heat, determine how much will transfer, e.g., to the atmosphere or ocean.
4. Water that is supercritical (its state in the subterranean chamber, and unlike liquid water at Earth's surface) is highly compressible and at sixty miles deep it was compressed by pressure greater than 370,000 lbs per square inch.
5. Understanding the behavior of supercritical water helps to quantify the heat of the fountains including that as it enormously expands to reach the 15 ppsi at Earth's surface the formerly SCW has cooled enormously according to the slope defined by the Clausius-Clapeyron relation.
6. Outer space functions as a virtually infinite heat "sink" not only radiating away (cooling) the fountains most energetic water and debris but actually removing that ejecta.
7. Air is a great insulator [like home insulation and Thinsulate].
8. Z-pinch (crustal lightning making heavier nuclei including dangerous radioactive elements like uranium and thorium) is adiabatic (i.e, it doesn't produce heat) and is even called cold repacking.
9. Time, even the duration of weeks and months (or years and even a few centuries of aftermath effects), can allow for the dissipation of large quantities of energy that would otherwise melt more of the Earth than actually did melt.
10. Estimates provided by critics trying to falisfy the hydroplate theory can be shown to stop suddenly short of affirming the hydroplate.
11. Forty days and nights (especially the nights) of torrential rain brought massive quantities of supercooled hail down onto the Earth.
12. The specific heat of water (i.e., a watched pot never boils), also called its heat capacity, is higher than any other common substance enabling the surface waters to absorb a tremdous amount of energy while raising its temperature minimally.

* HPT Heat Series: These programs form the eleventh installment in our RSR Answers HPT Objections meta series.
- RSR Answers the Hydroplate Theory Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-1
- RSR Answers the HPT Atmosphere Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-2
- RSR Answers the HPT Atmosphere & Oceans Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-3
- RSR Answers the HPT Crust Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-4
- RSR Answers the HPT Heat Problem Crust Final rsr.org/heat-5

* Heat Series Videos & Images: Intially, these spreadsheets are only screenshots but RSR plans to link them to dynamic spreadsheets which can be easily used by anyone to check these estimates.

HPT spreadsheet showing crust temperatures over time

HPT spreadsheet showing heat of crust over time

Radial fractures demonstrating rapidly generated extreme heat in tiny points in Earth's crust

 

Hydroplates slid on the supercritical water in the subterranean chamber

 

Nearby snow not melted by booster rocket test firing with 2.6M lbs thrust at 5,400 degrees F
Just averaging energy suggests, wrongly, that nearby snow would melt

* RSR's List of Answers to Hydroplate Theory Objections: This ongoing Answers series is part of our global flood metaseries available at rsr.org/hpt#metaseries.

1. List of Answers to Hydroplate Objections Pt 1 (this show addresses Baumgardner and voltage from granite; astronomer Faulkner and the 360-day year; geologist Patton and the origin of limestone)
2. List of Answers to Hydroplate Objections Pt 2 (QuakeFinder's Tom Bleier on electromagnetic quake forecasting toward answering geophysicist John Baumgardner)
3. Josh Spencer Answers HPT Objections (email exchange with a CPT proponent on Pangea, CPT miracles, etc.)
4. Spencer Answers Radioactivity Objections (nuclear engineering Ph.D. on Walt's origin of Earth's radioactivity)
5. Kevin Lea Answers the "Geometry Problem" objection from Baumgardner
6. Kevin Lea Answers the "Pacific Crust" Objection from Dr. Baumgarnder
7. Bryan Nickel Answers the "Linear Crack" Objection from Michael Oard
8. Bob Enyart Answers the false accusation from Don DeYoung that Brown sued ICR
9. Jane Albright Addresses Creation Groups' Opposition to Dr. Brown including a criticism from Jonathan Sarfati
10. Nickel Answers Oard's' Missing Shoreline and Sediments of Grand Lake
11. Nickel Answers the HPT Heat Problem Objections from Kuban, Reed, Faulkner, & Baumgardner.

Michael Behe RSR Interview Decades in the Making

darwin-devolves-michael-behe.jpgReal Science Radio host Bob Enyart interviews intelligent design rock star Michael Behe, author of Darwin's Black Box, The Edge of Evolution, and in 2019, Darwin Devolves. After decades of spats with secularists including Jerry Coyne, PZ Myers, and Jack Horner, and full interviews/debates with Eugenie Scott, Michael Shermer, Lawrence Krauss, and the really fun interviews with Seattle's intelligent-design Discovery Institute scientists Rick Sternberg, Paul Nelson, Steve Meyer, Doug Axe, Ann Gauger, and more, finally Bob gets to talk to Dr. Behe! Today's broadcast describes the main argument in Devolves and Bob urges listeners to click on the graphic above and support Michael's work by purchasing (and reviewing on Amazon!) his latest book!

* Only Now Challenge: Bob asks Dr. Behe if he could respond to a challenge about his claim, heard often from the Intelligent Design movement, that only now with the advances in molecular biology can we refute Darwin's mechanisms. "Only in the past few decades could the adequacy of Darwin's proposed mechanism of evolution even begin to be tested" (Behe, 2019, p. 20).

Ultrasound Analogy: Bob compared this to those who claim that until we had 4D ultrasound we couldn't see that the fetus was a person, except that mom could always feel the baby kick and thousands of years of miscarriages removed any doubt. So the lack of technology does not absolve our ancestors of their guilt in killing unborn children.

Organism Analog: Likewise with the claim that only now can we evaluate Darwin's evolution mechanism, for before the electron microscope men could still see the organism itself. An animal, for example, at a macro scale, is a perfect analog for the molecular machinery within it. An animal's interdependent and interoperable complex systems of respiration, digestion, and reproduction, for example, all of which have to develop together, from a fetus onward and have to work together.

Extinction Level: Before identifying DNA, human beings could see that most major evolutionary challenges would be extinction level events. For long before you evolved good wings, you'd evolve bad legs and go extinct. Consider the claim of the non-directed arrival of reproductive organs (which is inherently absurd), or talk to a chiropractor (about the spinal column being pieced together part by part in a non-directed fashon) and hear him laugh. The claims that the skin, brain, heart, kidneys and liver, stomach and intestines, the lungs, arose by non-directed processes all result in extinction level events when they don't work effectively, and they have to work together with and be compatable with all an animal's other complex systems.

Pre-Darwin Sophistication: Gregor Mendel proposed genetic science (Mendelism) as Darwin was publishing Origins. And 70 years earlier an Italian researcher discovered echolocation in bats when they could still fly after he blinded them and the next year in 1794 a Swiss put wax in their ears and the bats crashed.

Overselling Could Excuse: So if we oversell our modern insights, we may unintentionally excuse our ancestors, like those who mistreated aborigines and blacks. For even without microscopes, the early Darwinists can not be excused and really should have known that such were not animals but human beings made in God's image. Microscopic complexity has an analog in the whole organism. So Darwin's proposal was rationally falsified from the start and today we merely build on that foundation.

RSR Answers the HPT CRUST Heat Problem

HPT Heat Series Part 4

* And Now, the Crust: Real Science Radio's Bob Enyart interviews Bryan Nickel, a mechanical engineer who's spent 18 years in the missile division of a U.S. aerospace firm, about the criticism that the global flood events described by Dr. Walt Brown's Hydroplate Theory would melt the Earth's crust. In this HPT heat series, the guys have been addressing four critics, Glen Kuban and Tony Reed, and young-earthers Danny Faulkner and John Baumgardner, listing their combined twenty arguments claiming the HPT would boil the oceans, cook the atmosphere, and melt the crust. Bryan and Bob are working off a list of a dozen factors used to evaluate the heat transfer of the HPT including that expanding gas cools rapidly, the behavior of directed energy, the significance of boundary conditions, the role and behavior of supercritical water, and the adiabatic (heat-neutral) fusion by Z-pinch of light and heavy elements.

Photo of Bryan Nickel's hands around a butane torch to show directed energy* Twenty Specific Criticisms: The critic's name links to his criticism:

Glen Kuban: From the anti-creationist website called paleo.cc, argues that:

1. The release of pressurized water in the eruption of the fountains would deposit tremendous heat energy on the surface of the earth.
2. The temperature of the flood waters coming up from below, being supercritical as Walt Brown indicates, were at least 1300oF.
3. The HPT suggests that half of today's ocean waters were once below the crust so that mixture of hot SCW with the surface waters would virtually boil the oceans.
4. The massive friction from the sliding, compressing, and thickening continents would produce tremendous heat.
5. The massive lava fields and other volcanic activity occurring within the short young-earth timeframe.
6. Much of the sub-crustal water that jettisoned into the atmosphere fell back to earth as scalding rain.
7. Dramatically accelerated nuclear decay would produce lethal heat (and radiation levels).

Tony Reed, from his YouTube channel Creationism taught me real science argues that:

8. The Supercritical water would have transferred its heat to the atmosphere and scald the planet in part because although air doesn't conduct heat well, “steam conducts heat very well”.
9. A temperature differential of a few degrees produces wind and the HPT has a 1,000-degree differential so that would easily generate powerful winds that would spread the heat throughout the atmosphere.
10. The depressurizing water and the superheated steam and air would become a blast wave.
11. Water and crustal debris ejected to the upper atmosphere will not be able to cool down from the main two methods of heat transfer, conduction and convection, but only from radiation which is less effective.
12. After the first 40 days when the fountains of the great deep are no longer launching debris into space nor even into the atmosphere, but the flood level continues to rise for another 110 days so all that superheated water is going directly into the surface waters.

Danny Faulkner, astronomer at Ken Ham's Answers in Genesis, in a CRSQ paper, argues that:

13. A back-of-the-envelope calculation shows that life couldn't survive the overheating of the troposphere that would occur even if only a tiny fraction of the HPT's kinetic energy transfers from the jets to the atmosphere.
14. Water moving at the speeds Walt Brown indicates for the fountains of the great deep [escape velocity is a minimum of 7 mps and up to 32 mps to launch the retrograde comets] would produce tremendous turbulence which would slow down at least a portion of the water jet and transfer kinetic energy to the atmosphere.
15. The leading edge [or the top] of the jet of water would transfer momentum to the atmosphere slowing the leading edge producing a a cascading effect slowing the water below it, and so on, causing the jet to spread horizontally.
16. The HPT posits fountains of water moving at Mach 150 such that Bernoulli’s equation indicates a very large pressure difference that will drive air into the jet and thermalize the kinetic energy.

John Baumgardner, the creation geophysicist formerly with Los Alamos Nat'l Laboratory, who went on to work for Henry Morris at ICR, argues that:

17. Regarding the HPT's origin of Earth's radioactivity, the extreme heat released from radioactive fission of super-heavy elements would melt the Earth's crust.
18. Using Dr. Brown's own energy estimate on the order of 1030J of kinetic energy carried by the fast neutrons from super-heavy element fission [see Bryan Nickel's video for context explaining that these neutrons produced the deuterium in comets and in today’s oceans] results in the kinetic energy of the fission fragments being estimated at 33 times that of these fast neutrons with the waste heat arising from these fission fragments alone being on the order of 1031J, enough to vaporize the entire granite crust hundreds of times over.
19. This waste heat from the fission of super-heavy elements would be dwarfed, by a factor of ten, by the much larger amount of waste heat released in the fusion process which the HPT proposes for the creation of the super-heavy elements.
20. Thermal energy on the order of 1030J dumped into the [then estimated at] 3/4-mile thick layer of water beneath the granitic crust, being ionized, would turn into a hot plasma and be so energetic it would blow off the Earth's crust.

* RSR to AIG, ICR, CMI, & CRS: ARD melts CPT. Dr. Walt Brown's creationist critics support a competing flood model called Catastrophic Plate Tectonics which has its own heat problem with CPT advocates admitting that accelerated nuclear decay would melt the crust. They appeal to miracles first, for the primary mechanisms of CPT, and secondly, to remove the heat. HPT, in contrast, observes physical processes that mitigate heat. Dr. Brown, incidentally, received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Heat Transfer division in their engineering department while working in MIT's heat transfer lab. This program is the eleventh installment in our ongoing Answers metaseries.

* Twelve Factors Help to Answer Flood Heat Objections: This list provides a roadmap for the listener to know where we will be headed over the next few episodes as we evaluate the heat consequences of the hydroplate theory.

1. Fluids cool rapidly as they expand (as in from below the crust to the surface) as well described by the Joule-Thomson effect.
2. Directed energy comprised of molecules with great momentum strongly resists change in direction.
3. Boundary conditions, rather than total amount of heat, determine how much will transfer, e.g., to the atmosphere or ocean.
4. Water that is supercritical (its state in the subterranean chamber, and unlike liquid water at Earth's surface) is highly compressible and at sixty miles deep it was compressed by pressure greater than 370,000 lbs per square inch.
5. Understanding the behavior of supercritical water helps to quantify the heat of the fountains including that as it enormously expands to reach the 15 ppsi at Earth's surface the formerly SCW has cooled enormously according to the slope defined by the Clausius-Clapeyron relation.
6. Outer space functions as a virtually infinite heat "sink" not only radiating away (cooling) the fountains most energetic water and debris but actually removing that ejecta.
7. Air is a great insulator [like home insulation and Thinsulate].
8. Z-pinch (crustal lightning making heavier nuclei including dangerous radioactive elements like uranium and thorium) is adiabatic (i.e, it doesn't produce heat) and is even called cold repacking.
9. Time, even the duration of weeks and months (or years and even a few centuries of aftermath effects), can allow for the dissipation of large quantities of energy that would otherwise melt more of the Earth than actually did melt.
10. Estimates provided by critics trying to falisfy the hydroplate theory can be shown to stop suddenly short of affirming the hydroplate.
11. Forty days and nights (especially the nights) of torrential rain brought massive quantities of supercooled hail down onto the Earth.
12. The specific heat of water (i.e., a watched pot never boils), also called its heat capacity, is higher than any other common substance enabling the surface waters to absorb a tremdous amount of energy while raising its temperature minimally.

* HPT Heat Series: These programs form the eleventh installment in our RSR Answers HPT Objections meta series.
- RSR Answers the Hydroplate Theory Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-1
- RSR Answers the HPT Atmosphere Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-2
- RSR Answers the HPT Atmosphere & Oceans Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-3
- RSR Answers the HPT Crust Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-4
- RSR Answers the HPT Heat Problem Crust Final rsr.org/heat-5

* RSR's List of Answers to Hydroplate Theory Objections: This ongoing Answers series is part of our global flood metaseries available at rsr.org/hpt#metaseries.

1. List of Answers to Hydroplate Objections Pt 1 (this show addresses Baumgardner and voltage from granite; astronomer Faulkner and the 360-day year; geologist Patton and the origin of limestone)
2. List of Answers to Hydroplate Objections Pt 2 (QuakeFinder's Tom Bleier on electromagnetic quake forecasting toward answering geophysicist John Baumgardner)
3. Josh Spencer Answers HPT Objections (email exchange with a CPT proponent on Pangea, CPT miracles, etc.)
4. Spencer Answers Radioactivity Objections (nuclear engineering Ph.D. on Walt's origin of Earth's radioactivity)
5. Kevin Lea Answers the "Geometry Problem" objection from Baumgardner
6. Kevin Lea Answers the "Pacific Crust" Objection from Dr. Baumgarnder
7. Bryan Nickel Answers the "Linear Crack" Objection from Michael Oard
8. Bob Enyart Answers the false accusation from Don DeYoung that Brown sued ICR
9. Jane Albright Addresses Creation Groups' Opposition to Dr. Brown including a criticism from Jonathan Sarfati
10. Nickel Answers Oard's' Missing Shoreline and Sediments of Grand Lake
11. Nickel Answers the HPT Heat Problem Objections from Kuban, Reed, Faulkner, & Baumgardner.

Hear Dr. Cone Here and Now and then on Friday at RMCF!

Do Christian colleges really teach evolution? Is that the exception or the rule? When they adopt the "day age" interpretation of the creation days, what biblical teachings do they quickly end up rejecting? (It's quite a sad list!) Real Science Radio host Bob Enyart interviews Dr.

RSR Answers the HPT Atmosphere & Oceans Heat Problem

HPT Heat Series Part 3

* Heat in the Atmosphere & Oceans: [Check back on April 19th for more embedded videos & graphics.] Enyart continues his interview Bryan Nickel, a mechanical engineer who's spent 18 years in the missile division of a U.S. aerospace firm, about the criticism that Dr. Walt Brown's Hydroplate Theory would bring catastrophic heat to the Earth's surface during the global flood. The guys address four critics, anti-creationists Glen Kuban and Tony Reed, and fellow young-earthers Danny Faulkner and John Baumgardner, listing their combined twenty arguments claiming the HPT would boil the oceans, cook the atmosphere, and melt the crust. Then Bryan and Bob list a dozen factors they will employ over the next few programs to evaluate the heat transfer of the HPT including that expanding gas cools rapidly, the behavior of directed energy, the significance of boundary conditions, the role and behavior of supercritical water, and the nearly heat-neutral fusion of heavy elements. Walt's creationist critics support a competing flood model called Catastrophic Plate Tectonics which has its own heat problem with CPT advocates admitting that accelerated nuclear decay would melt the crust and appealing to a miracle as a solution for removing that heat. HPT, in contrast, observes physical processes that mitigate heat. Dr. Brown, incidentally, received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Heat Transfer division in their engineering department while working in MIT's heat transfer lab.

Photo of Bryan Nickel's hands around a butane torch to show directed energy* Twenty Specific Criticisms: The critic's name links to his criticism:

Glen Kuban: From the anti-creationist website called paleo.cc, argues that:

1. The release of pressurized water in the eruption of the fountains would deposit tremendous heat energy on the surface of the earth.
2. The temperature of the flood waters coming up from below, being supercritical as Walt Brown indicates, were at least 1300oF.
3. The HPT suggests that half of today's ocean waters were once below the crust so that mixture of hot SCW with the surface waters would virtually boil the oceans.
4. The massive friction from the sliding, compressing, and thickening continents would produce tremendous heat.
5. The massive lava fields and other volcanic activity occurring within the short young-earth timeframe.
6. Much of the sub-crustal water that jettisoned into the atmosphere fell back to earth as scalding rain.
7. Dramatically accelerated nuclear decay would produce lethal heat (and radiation levels).

Tony Reed, from his YouTube channel Creationism taught me real science argues that:

8. The Supercritical water would have transferred its heat to the atmosphere and scald the planet in part because although air doesn't conduct heat well, “steam conducts heat very well”.
9. A temperature differential of a few degrees produces wind and the HPT has a 1,000-degree differential so that would easily generate powerful winds that would spread the heat throughout the atmosphere.
10. The depressurizing water and the superheated steam and air would become a blast wave.
11. Water and crustal debris ejected to the upper atmosphere will not be able to cool down from the main two methods of heat transfer, conduction and convection, but only from radiation which is less effective.
12. After the first 40 days when the fountains of the great deep are no longer launching debris into space nor even into the atmosphere, but the flood level continues to rise for another 110 days so all that superheated water is going directly into the surface waters.

Danny Faulkner, astronomer at Ken Ham's Answers in Genesis, in a CRSQ paper, argues that:

13. A back-of-the-envelope calculation shows that life couldn't survive the overheating of the troposphere that would occur even if only a tiny fraction of the HPT's kinetic energy transfers from the jets to the atmosphere.
14. Water moving at the speeds Walt Brown indicates for the fountains of the great deep [escape velocity is a minimum of 7 mps and up to 32 mps to launch the retrograde comets] would produce tremendous turbulence which would slow down at least a portion of the water jet and transfer kinetic energy to the atmosphere.
15. The leading edge [or the top] of the jet of water would transfer momentum to the atmosphere slowing the leading edge producing a a cascading effect slowing the water below it, and so on, causing the jet to spread horizontally.
16. The HPT posits fountains of water moving at Mach 150 such that Bernoulli’s equation indicates a very large pressure difference that will drive air into the jet and thermalize the kinetic energy.

John Baumgardner, the creation geophysicist formerly with Los Alamos Nat'l Laboratory, who went on to work for Henry Morris at ICR, argues that:

17. Regarding the HPT's origin of Earth's radioactivity, the extreme heat released from radioactive fission of super-heavy elements would melt the Earth's crust.
18. Using Dr. Brown's own energy estimate on the order of 1030J of kinetic energy carried by the fast neutrons from super-heavy element fission [see Bryan Nickel's video for context explaining that these neutrons produced the deuterium in comets and in today’s oceans] results in the kinetic energy of the fission fragments being estimated at 33 times that of these fast neutrons with the waste heat arising from these fission fragments alone being on the order of 1031J, enough to vaporize the entire granite crust hundreds of times over.
19. This waste heat from the fission of super-heavy elements would be dwarfed, by a factor of ten, by the much larger amount of waste heat released in the fusion process which the HPT proposes for the creation of the super-heavy elements.
20. Thermal energy on the order of 1030J dumped into the [then estimated at] 3/4-mile thick layer of water beneath the granitic crust, being ionized, would turn into a hot plasma and be so energetic it would blow off the Earth's crust.

* RSR to AIG, ICR, CMI, & CRS: ARD melts CPT. Dr. Walt Brown's creationist critics support a competing flood model called Catastrophic Plate Tectonics which has its own heat problem with CPT advocates admitting that accelerated nuclear decay would melt the crust. They appeal to miracles first, for the primary mechanisms of CPT, and secondly, to remove the heat. HPT, in contrast, observes physical processes that mitigate heat. Dr. Brown, incidentally, received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Heat Transfer division in their engineering department while working in MIT's heat transfer lab. This program is the eleventh installment in our ongoing Answers metaseries.

* Twelve Factors Help to Answer Flood Heat Objections: This list provides a roadmap for the listener to know where we will be headed over the next few episodes as we evaluate the heat consequences of the hydroplate theory.

1. Fluids cool rapidly as they expand (as in from below the crust to the surface) as well described by the Joule-Thomson effect.
2. Directed energy comprised of molecules with great momentum strongly resists change in direction.
3. Boundary conditions, rather than total amount of heat, determine how much will transfer, e.g., to the atmosphere or ocean.
4. Water that is supercritical (its state in the subterranean chamber, and unlike liquid water at Earth's surface) is highly compressible and at sixty miles deep it was compressed by pressure greater than 370,000 lbs per square inch.
5. Understanding the behavior of supercritical water helps to quantify the heat of the fountains including that as it enormously expands to reach the 15 ppsi at Earth's surface the formerly SCW has cooled enormously according to the slope defined by the Clausius-Clapeyron relation.
6. Outer space functions as a virtually infinite heat "sink" not only radiating away (cooling) the fountains most energetic water and debris but actually removing that ejecta.
7. Air is a great insulator [like home insulation and Thinsulate].
8. Z-pinch (crustal lightning making heavier nuclei including dangerous radioactive elements like uranium and thorium) is adiabatic (i.e, it doesn't produce heat) and is even called cold repacking.
9. Time, even the duration of weeks and months (or years and even a few centuries of aftermath effects), can allow for the dissipation of large quantities of energy that would otherwise melt more of the Earth than actually did melt.
11. Forty days and nights (especially the nights) of torrential rain brought massive quantities of supercooled hail down onto the Earth.
12. The specific heat of water (i.e., a watched pot never boils), also called its heat capacity, is higher than any other common substance enabling the surface waters to absorb a tremdous amount of energy while raising its temperature minimally.

* HPT Heat Series: These programs form the eleventh installment in our RSR Answers HPT Objections meta series.
- RSR Answers the Hydroplate Theory Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-1
- RSR Answers the HPT Atmosphere Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-2
- RSR Answers the HPT Atmosphere & Oceans Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-3
- RSR Answers the HPT Crust Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-4
- RSR Answers the HPT Heat Problem Crust Final rsr.org/heat-5

* Heat Series Videos & Images:

Nearby snow not melted by booster rocket test firing with 2.6M lbs thrust at 5,400 degrees F
Just averaging energy suggests, wrongly, that nearby snow would melt

* RSR's List of Answers to Hydroplate Theory Objections: This ongoing Answers series is part of our global flood metaseries available at rsr.org/hpt#metaseries.

1. List of Answers to Hydroplate Objections Pt 1 (this show addresses Baumgardner and voltage from granite; astronomer Faulkner and the 360-day year; geologist Patton and the origin of limestone)
2. List of Answers to Hydroplate Objections Pt 2 (QuakeFinder's Tom Bleier on electromagnetic quake forecasting toward answering geophysicist John Baumgardner)
3. Josh Spencer Answers HPT Objections (email exchange with a CPT proponent on Pangea, CPT miracles, etc.)
4. Spencer Answers Radioactivity Objections (nuclear engineering Ph.D. on Walt's origin of Earth's radioactivity)
5. Kevin Lea Answers the "Geometry Problem" objection from Baumgardner
6. Kevin Lea Answers the "Pacific Crust" Objection from Dr. Baumgarnder
7. Bryan Nickel Answers the "Linear Crack" Objection from Michael Oard
8. Bob Enyart Answers the false accusation from Don DeYoung that Brown sued ICR
9. Jane Albright Addresses Creation Groups' Opposition to Dr. Brown including a criticism from Jonathan Sarfati
10. Nickel Answers Oard's' Missing Shoreline and Sediments of Grand Lake
11. Nickel Answers the HPT Heat Problem Objections from Kuban, Reed, Faulkner, & Baumgardner.

RSR Answers the HPT Atmosphere Heat Problem

HPT Heat Series Part 2

Photo of Bryan Nickel's hands around a butane torch to show directed energy* The Missile Division Engineer and the Critics: Enyart interviews Bryan Nickel, a mechanical engineer who's spent 18 years in the missile division of a U.S. aerospace firm, about the criticism that Dr. Walt Brown's Hydroplate Theory would bring catastrophic heat to the Earth's surface during the global flood. The guys address four critics, anti-creationists Glen Kuban and Tony Reed, and fellow young-earthers Danny Faulkner and John Baumgardner.

* RSR to AIG, ICR, CMI, & CRS: ARD melts CPT. Really. The big four groups and their scientists who make up Walt Brown's leading creationist critics mostly support a competing flood model called Catastrophic Plate Tectonics. CPT has its own heat problem with advocates admitting that accelerated radioactive decay would melt the crust and appealing to a miracle as a solution for removing that heat. HPT, in contrast, observes physical processes that remove heat.

* Bio: Dr. Walt Brown received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Heat Transfer division in their engineering department while working in MIT's heat transfer lab.

* The Twenty Criticisms: See last week's list of 20 heat criticisms lodged claiming that the events described by Walt Brown's Hydroplate Theory would boil the oceans, cook the atmosphere, and melt the crust.

* The Dozen Physics Observations: Bryan and Bob last week then reviewed a list of a 12 physics factors that address the 20 criticisms and on today's program they begin applying those laws of physics beginning with the criticisms that the HPT theory events would overheat the atmosphere. For example, evaluating the heat transfer of the HPT, includes recognizing that a rapidly expanding fluid (liquid, gas, or supercritical water) cools extremely rapidly. On today's program the guys also note the behavior of directed energy and the significance of boundary conditions. Later in this series, they will address that nuclear fusion (a process involved in understanding the origin of Earth's radioactivity) is adiabatic (i.e., heat neutral) when looked at from the perspective of fusing the periodic table's lighter and heavier elements (in the general proportions that they are found in Earth's crust).

* HPT Heat Series: These programs form the eleventh installment in our RSR Answers HPT Objections meta series.
- RSR Answers the Hydroplate Theory Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-1
- RSR Answers the HPT Atmosphere Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-2
- RSR Answers the HPT Atmosphere & Oceans Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-3
- RSR Answers the HPT Crust Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-4
- RSR Answers the HPT Heat Problem Crust Final rsr.org/heat-5

* The Hydroplate Theory Special: You may want to purchase this set of resources if...
- You'd like to read the best creation book ever written and watch its accompanying videos
- You like Real Science Radio and want to help it stay on the air
- You'd like to give the gift of understanding creation and the flood to someone who could really benefit from it. 

RSR's Hydroplate Theory Special: a book and two video sets...

* The RSR Repository: For all things HPT just click on over to rsr.org/hpt.

* Heat Series Images, Spreadsheets, & Videos: A click on this Google Docs screenshot brings you to our draft version of our HPT Temperatures of the Fountains spreadsheet.

HPT spreadsheet to estimate the temperatures of the fountains of the great deep
Estimating the fountains temps


- Adding heat to supercritical water...  

- Regarding this stored energy in supercritical water...  

- Regarding temperatures under the crust and hypersonic speeds of the fountain...

- Explanation/Example of directed energy and rapid expansion of gases...

- Inertia of atmosphere and how entrained material would act to cool and further protect life within...

* Sunday Update -- Jason Jones Spoke at DBC Today: Thanks Jason, and what a great promo you just put together on Friday for Unplanned...

RSR Answers the Hydroplate Theory Heat Problem

HPT Heat Series Part 1

* Would Hydroplate Theory Events Toast Us? Real Science Radio's Bob Enyart interviews Bryan Nickel, a mechanical engineer who's spent 18 years in the missile division of a U.S. aerospace firm, about the criticism that Dr. Walt Brown's Hydroplate Theory would bring catastrophic heat to the Earth's surface during the global flood. The guys address four critics, anti-creationists Glen Kuban and Tony Reed, and fellow young-earthers Danny Faulkner and John Baumgardner, listing their combined twenty arguments claiming the HPT would boil the oceans, cook the atmosphere, and melt the crust. Then Bryan and Bob list a dozen factors they will employ over the next few programs to evaluate the heat transfer of the HPT including that expanding gas cools rapidly, the behavior of directed energy, the significance of boundary conditions, the role and behavior of supercritical water, and the nearly heat-neutral fusion of heavy elements.

Photo of Bryan Nickel's hands around a butane torch to show directed energy* Twenty Specific Criticisms: The critic's name links to his criticism:

Glen Kuban: From the anti-creationist website called paleo.cc, argues that:

1. The release of pressurized water in the eruption of the fountains would deposit tremendous heat energy on the surface of the earth.
2. The temperature of the flood waters coming up from below, being supercritical as Walt Brown indicates, were at least 1300oF.
3. The HPT suggests that half of today's ocean waters were once below the crust so that mixture of hot SCW with the surface waters would virtually boil the oceans.
4. The massive friction from the sliding, compressing, and thickening continents would produce tremendous heat.
5. The massive lava fields and other volcanic activity occurring within the short young-earth timeframe.
6. Much of the sub-crustal water that jettisoned into the atmosphere fell back to earth as scalding rain.
7. Dramatically accelerated nuclear decay would produce lethal heat (and radiation levels).

Tony Reed, from his YouTube channel Creationism taught me real science argues that:

8. The Supercritical water would have transferred its heat to the atmosphere and scald the planet in part because although air doesn't conduct heat well, “steam conducts heat very well”.
9. A temperature differential of a few degrees produces wind and the HPT has a 1,000-degree differential so that would easily generate powerful winds that would spread the heat throughout the atmosphere.
10. The depressurizing water and the superheated steam and air would become a blast wave.
11. Water and crustal debris ejected to the upper atmosphere will not be able to cool down from the main two methods of heat transfer, conduction and convection, but only from radiation which is less effective.
12. After the first 40 days when the fountains of the great deep are no longer launching debris into space nor even into the atmosphere, but the flood level continues to rise for another 110 days so all that superheated water is going directly into the surface waters.

Danny Faulkner, astronomer at Ken Ham's Answers in Genesis, in a CRSQ paper, argues that:

13. A back-of-the-envelope calculation shows that life couldn't survive the overheating of the troposphere that would occur even if only a tiny fraction of the HPT's kinetic energy transfers from the jets to the atmosphere.
14. Water moving at the speeds Walt Brown indicates for the fountains of the great deep [escape velocity is a minimum of 7 mps and up to 32 mps to launch the retrograde comets] would produce tremendous turbulence which would slow down at least a portion of the water jet and transfer kinetic energy to the atmosphere.
15. The leading edge [or the top] of the jet of water would transfer momentum to the atmosphere slowing the leading edge producing a a cascading effect slowing the water below it, and so on, causing the jet to spread horizontally.
16. The HPT posits fountains of water moving at Mach 150 such that Bernoulli’s equation indicates a very large pressure difference that will drive air into the jet and thermalize the kinetic energy.

John Baumgardner, the creation geophysicist formerly with Los Alamos Nat'l Laboratory, who went on to work for Henry Morris at ICR, argues that:

17. Regarding the HPT's origin of Earth's radioactivity, the extreme heat released from radioactive fission of super-heavy elements would melt the Earth's crust.
18. Using Dr. Brown's own energy estimate on the order of 1030J of kinetic energy carried by the fast neutrons from super-heavy element fission [see Bryan Nickel's video for context explaining that these neutrons produced the deuterium in comets and in today’s oceans] results in the kinetic energy of the fission fragments being estimated at 33 times that of these fast neutrons with the waste heat arising from these fission fragments alone being on the order of 1031J, enough to vaporize the entire granite crust hundreds of times over.
19. This waste heat from the fission of super-heavy elements would be dwarfed, by a factor of ten, by the much larger amount of waste heat released in the fusion process which the HPT proposes for the creation of the super-heavy elements.
20. Thermal energy on the order of 1030J dumped into the [then estimated at] 3/4-mile thick layer of water beneath the granitic crust, being ionized, would turn into a hot plasma and be so energetic it would blow off the Earth's crust.

* RSR to AIG, ICR, CMI, & CRS: ARD melts CPT. Dr. Walt Brown's creationist critics support a competing flood model called Catastrophic Plate Tectonics which has its own heat problem with CPT advocates admitting that accelerated nuclear decay would melt the crust. They appeal to miracles first, for the primary mechanisms of CPT, and secondly, to remove the heat. HPT, in contrast, observes physical processes that mitigate heat. Dr. Brown, incidentally, received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Heat Transfer division in their engineering department while working in MIT's heat transfer lab. This program is the eleventh installment in our ongoing Answers metaseries.

* Twelve Factors Help to Answer Flood Heat Objections: This list provides a roadmap for the listener to know where we will be headed over the next few episodes as we evaluate the heat consequences of the hydroplate theory.

1. Fluids cool rapidly as they expand (as in from below the crust to the surface) as well described by the Joule-Thomson effect.
2. Directed energy comprised of molecules with great momentum strongly resists change in direction.
3. Boundary conditions, rather than total amount of heat, determine how much will transfer, e.g., to the atmosphere or ocean.
4. Water that is supercritical (its state in the subterranean chamber, and unlike liquid water at Earth's surface) is highly compressible and at sixty miles deep it was compressed by pressure greater than 370,000 lbs per square inch.
5. Understanding the behavior of supercritical water helps to quantify the heat of the fountains including that as it enormously expands to reach the 15 ppsi at Earth's surface the formerly SCW has cooled enormously according to the slope defined by the Clausius-Clapeyron relation.
6. Outer space functions as a virtually infinite heat "sink" not only radiating away (cooling) the fountains most energetic water and debris but actually removing that ejecta.
7. Air is a great insulator [like home insulation and Thinsulate].
8. Z-pinch (crustal lightning making heavier nuclei including dangerous radioactive elements like uranium and thorium) is adiabatic (i.e, it doesn't produce heat) and is even called cold repacking.
9. Time, even the duration of weeks and months (or years and even a few centuries of aftermath effects), can allow for the dissipation of large quantities of energy that would otherwise melt more of the Earth than actually did melt.
10. Estimates provided by critics trying to falisfy the hydroplate theory can be shown to stop suddenly short of affirming the hydroplate.
11. Forty days and nights (especially the nights) of torrential rain brought massive quantities of supercooled hail down onto the Earth.
12. The specific heat of water (i.e., a watched pot never boils), also called its heat capacity, is higher than any other common substance enabling the surface waters to absorb a tremdous amount of energy while raising its temperature minimally.

* HPT Heat Series: These programs form the eleventh installment in our RSR Answers HPT Objections meta series.
- RSR Answers the Hydroplate Theory Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-1
- RSR Answers the HPT Atmosphere Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-2
- RSR Answers the HPT Atmosphere & Oceans Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-3
- RSR Answers the HPT Crust Heat Problem rsr.org/heat-4
- RSR Answers the HPT Heat Problem Crust Final rsr.org/heat-5

* RSR's List of Answers to Hydroplate Theory Objections: This ongoing Answers series is part of our global flood metaseries available at rsr.org/hpt#metaseries.

1. List of Answers to Hydroplate Objections Pt 1 (this show addresses Baumgardner and voltage from granite; astronomer Faulkner and the 360-day year; geologist Patton and the origin of limestone)
2. List of Answers to Hydroplate Objections Pt 2 (QuakeFinder's Tom Bleier on electromagnetic quake forecasting toward answering geophysicist John Baumgardner)
3. Josh Spencer Answers HPT Objections (email exchange with a CPT proponent on Pangea, CPT miracles, etc.)
4. Spencer Answers Radioactivity Objections (nuclear engineering Ph.D. on Walt's origin of Earth's radioactivity)
5. Kevin Lea Answers the "Geometry Problem" objection from Baumgardner
6. Kevin Lea Answers the "Pacific Crust" Objection from Dr. Baumgarnder
7. Bryan Nickel Answers the "Linear Crack" Objection from Michael Oard
8. Bob Enyart Answers the false accusation from Don DeYoung that Brown sued ICR
9. Jane Albright Addresses Creation Groups' Opposition to Dr. Brown including a criticism from Jonathan Sarfati
10. Nickel Answers Oard's' Missing Shoreline and Sediments of Grand Lake
11. Nickel Answers the HPT Heat Problem Objections from Kuban, Reed, Faulkner, & Baumgardner.

Tim Mahoney on BEL on the Origin of the Alphabet

Mahoney's Patterns of Evidence: Moses ControversyFilmmaker Tim Mahoney of Patterns of Evidence fame on the Exodus returns to BEL to discuss his sequel, Patterns: The Moses Controvery, appearing in 900 theaters nationwide as a Fathom Event!  Get the DVDs for one or both films! For this same March 2019 weekend, Bob will be speaking in Decatur, Alabama on creation apologetics! See below for the details or at kgov.com/decatur.

Our friend rsr.org/tim-mahoney beat expectations (an incredible accomplishment!) giving the atheistic scholars their say, claiming that Moses couldn't have written Exodus (and the other books of the Pentateuch). Then he gave the evidence its say! Did the alphabet begin with the Hebrews (and their aleph-bet)? Thanks to The Moses Controversy, the public can now see for themselves directly into what has previously been a scholars-only domain and Mahoney clearly exposes the biased-based case of the experts. From our own rsr.org/exodus-evidence. And from rsr.org/exodus-evidence:

Chilperic Edwards translator of Hammurabi's Code 1904The Hebrews gave the word "Pharaoh" to the world: Recall first that our English word "alphabet" comes from the first two letters of the Hebrew alphabet, aleph and bet. Then think about the etymology of the word Pharaoh which looks back to the term for the palace of Egypt's king. Chilperic Edwards, one of the first scholars to translate the Code of Hammurabi, stated regarding the non-Egyptian origin of the title of their monarch: "Pharaoh was the name given by Hebrew writers to the king of Egypt." Most Egyptologists reject the historical basis for the Exodus, discounting any significant role for Abraham's descendants in Egypt. Yet language itself, one of the greatest of world treasures, is perhaps our most important historical monument. Thus, Israel's role in Egypt can be rediscovered by recognizing that the Jews gave to the world the Hebrew word Pharaoh, a word that eventually attained to common usage even by the ancient Egyptians themselves. Edwards adds, "It has been pretended that [the word Pharaoh] is a corruption of the Egyptian pa-oura... But ur, or oura, simply means a chief, or headman, and has not yet been found applied to any monarch. [N]o word, term, or title resembling Pharaoh has yet been found upon any Egyptian monument applied to any king." For more regarding the title Pharaoh being Jewish while the name Moses is Egyptian, see rsr.org/pharaoh.

See also: timesofisrael.com/first-written-record-of-semitic-alphabet-from-15th-century-bce-found-in-egypt.

Update: ICR's Acts & Facts gives a shout out to RSR in their current March 2019 issue where Brian Thomas writes about our online spreadsheet, List of Biomaterial Fossil Papers (maintained), "Real Science Radio host Bob Enyart and I continue to curate that growing list online." Thank you Brian, Henry Morris III, and everyone at the Institute for Creation Research!