List of Evidence for the Global Flood

Updated July 7, 2021: Atheism and Christianity both stand or fall by the global flood. If the global flood occurred, the strata and the fossils of the geologic column were laid down in the recent past by floodwaters, so the geologic argument for evolution and an old earth is falsified and the Scriptures are corroborated in the Bible's most extensive historical claim. Not surprisingly then, atheists have joined other old-earthers to say a thousand times over, "There's no evidence for the global flood." (That's like physicist Lawrence Krauss telling us, "All evidence overwhelmingly supports the big bang." See that at So Real Science Radio hosts Bob Enyart and Fred Williams proceed then to do the seemingly impossible. The guys share this list of scientific evidence, and then the biblical evidence, for the global flood and they reference this page as or simply

See the dozens of peer-reviewed papers published on dinosaur soft tissue discoveries...
T. rex

* Flood Evidence for Materialists and Christians: The first list, Scientific Evidence, is for everyone from the Christian creationist to the materialist atheist, providing observations that corroborate the historical record of the global flood of Noah's day. The second list, Biblical Global Flood References, is for those who recognize Scripture as the Earth's "history of record". A third bonus list follows.

Scientific Evidence
- Today two miles of water covering two-thirds of Earth, enough to overtop the early lower mountains.
- An average of more than a mile deep of sedimentary layers on the continents.
- Trillions of dead things (i.e., hard-to-form fossils) laid down by water in strata all over graveyard Earth.
- The documented Permian extinction event destroyed 90% of all multicellular marine species.
- A documented genetic bottleneck for man and 90% of all animals far more recent than a million years ago.
- While NASA presumes there may have been a near global flood on virtually bone-dry Mars, secularists ignore the sufficient water in our own two-mile deep oceans which could easily cover the Earth (with lower pre-flood mountains).
- All major mountain ranges have marine fossils atop them including on Everest, the Rockies, etc., (excepting volcanoes of course), of fish, clams, marine mammals, sea lilies, even whales high in the Andes, etc.
- The general pattern of fossil progression (see below) matches flood burial from the Precambrian layer's seabed bottom-dwelling creatures like trilobites up through the Jurassic and higher layer birds.
- Dinosaur soft tissue still exists preserving T. rex blood cells, blood vessels, and a dozen proteins from a dozen different kinds of dinosaurs and countless other organisms.

- Carbon 14 everywhere it's not supposed to be, with significant amounts of short-lived 14c, in quantities far above the least count (margin of error) of our state-of-the-art AMS equipment (accelerator mass spectrometry) being consistently measured in diamondsmarble, mosasaur, fossilized woodnatural gascoal, oil, and dinosaur fossils (with the claimed bacterial contamination, according to the journal Nature Communications, getting its carbon 14 strictly from the bone).
- There's mostly left-handed amino acids in partially fossilized organisms (not yet decayed to a 50/50 right-to-left ratio), for example, in chert and dinosaur eggshells, and undoubtedly, throughout the fossil record! (Hey, that's another!) So, the three-fold argument is incredibly powerful, dinosaur soft tissue, with mostly left-handed amino acids, loaded with short-lived carbon 14.
- Amber contains marine organisms including even some pieces entombing crustaceans and many others trapping creatures that live underwater or far out at sea and yet the conifer tree resin solidifies only in air.
- Anthropologists have documented recollections of an ancient flood from hundreds of tribal, ethnic, and national peoples with uncanny similarities including the saving of man and animals in a vessel, whereas if humanity did not share an ancient flood motif, many would use that as evidence against the deluge.
- Archaeologists have documented evidence that human technological advancement, such as the invention of bows-and-arrows and symbolic signaling, occurred not in a single region (as though men were just evolving such capabilities) but convergently in very different places incuding even "within the tropical rainforests of Asia."
- Stratigraphic layers of sediments hundreds and even thousands of feet thick often extend regionally and some are even continental in scope covering tens of thousands of square miles and more.
- The 300 feet thick Coconino sandstone covering 200,000 square miles in the U.S. southwest is claimed to originate at least a thousand miles to the east and north, with a half-million measurements of water current direction indicating west and southwest flowing water, allegedly for millions of years, but with no conceivable westward transcontinental river system capable of explaining such drainage.
- The purity of many sedimentary layers indicate rapid deposition with limestone, for example, going from at least 50% calcium carbonate for the geologist's requirement for a rock to be considered limestone, to economic interests beginning at 80%, with the mining industry's standards for "low purity" at 85 and "high purity" at 97%. (See also a whale fossil in highly pure diatomaceous earth.)
- Stratigraphic layers around the world have boundaries between them, called flat gaps, most extensively and marvelously exposed in the Grand Canyon, that characteristically show no evidence of what should be millions of years of relentless erosion but are instead massively parallel.
- Limestone deposits would poison the Earth with CO2 unless the fountains of the great deep brought up those minerals.
- Rivers are losing their roles as the carvers of the world's largest canyons, as the journal Science reported for example, the Tsangpo Gorge, the world's deepest canyon, and even longer than the Grand Canyon, was not carved by the Yarlung Tsangpo River as long claimed but quickly eroded after a rapid uplift.
- Massive and lengthy submarine canyons, some with tributary systems and near vertical walls as deep as 15,000 feet below sea level, cannot be carved by the oceans' slow marine currents or submarine landslides, and have no workable mechanism to carve them other than rapid drain off of floodwaters from the continents.
- Off the charts energy levels caused past geologic catastrophism, dwarfing by six orders of magnitude modern phenomenon, comparing for example the 36 cubic miles of magma from the largest eruption of the last few thousand years with the lava fields from earlier history (during and shortly after the global flood) that produced from thousands to millions of cubic miles of magma.
- Many recent studies contradict Out-of-Africa and the human evolution story including footprints in Crete, a skull from China, a baby in Alaska, two teeth found in northern Europe, and blue eyes developing as recently as 6,000 years ago; and some instead support the post-flood Out-of-Babel origin of civilization including the direction of migration indicated by a thousand years of ancient Egyptian mummy DNA, and the oldest language in India dated as appearing only 4,500 years ago.
- Human DNA studies show a worldwide genetic bottleneck including mitochondrial DNA (passed only from mothers) highlighting Noah's three daughters-in-law (and before them, a mtEve from whom all human beings have descended and in "a mere 6,000 years" reports the journal Science when calculating from actual measured mutation rates).
- The Y chromosome distribution pattern supports a single radiation of human beings across the Earth, as do Mitochondrial migration studies, into unpopulated territories (with a full third of the chromosome unrelated to chimps, with shockingly little variation among men, and all going back to Y-chromosomal Adam from whom every human being has descended).
- Only a couple hundred generations were necessary to produce humanity's genetic diversity, as per various studies including in the journal Nature regarding protein-coding variants.
- Genetic entropy, as presented in a 2018 lecture at the NIH (National Institutes of Health), ensures that mutations will drive all species extinct so quickly that mathematically, life cannot survive through deep time.   
- The world's crops originated near Mt. Ararat as per a 2004 paper in the journal Science, "The wild ancestors of the seven ‘founder crops’ harvested by the world’s first farmers have all been traced to the region of southeastern Turkey..." And see the 2000 Cradle of Agriculture also in Science.
- Millions of polystrate fossils of many kinds including upright trees, schools of perch, tadpoles, and jellyfish, vertical leaves, mesosaur, whale in diatoms, a school of whales, delicate spines, nautiloids in allegedly slow-forming limestone, countless three-dimensional trilobites, dinosaur footprints deforming rock layers, each documenting organisms being buried by successive layers of varying geographic extent or buried in homogenous layers like limestone or diatomaceous rock claimed to form as slow as an inch in a thousand years.
- Anthropology documents a worldwide population bottleneck not only by recollection of a flood, as described above, with common features such as mankind and the animals being saved in a vessel, but also of matters as diverse as marriage, the seven day week, wearing clothes, and ritual divine appeasement often by animal sacrifice, along with lesser but also widespread practices such as measuring with a cubit and accounts of dragons.
- Flood advocates are able to make stunning scientific predictions, contrary to the expectations of those who reject the flood (as at
And Evidence that the Flood's Fountains Launched Debris (see fountains evidence, below)
- Many published scientific reports of apparent biological material in space.
- Nearside of the Moon beat with far greater impacts than the farside.
- Transient lunar phenomena with a thousand moonquakes per year, etc.
- Transient events of the solar system (TESS) with landslide on Comet 67P, etc.
- Comets, asteroids, and meteoroids (with diamonds in them, etc.) made of many materials common on Earth but each very hard to explain forming in space, especially in the outer solar system; so meteoroids are not from the Moon and Mars, they're from Earth and they're just coming home (including the Earth's "oldest" rock, found on the Moon and the thousands of rounded boulders in comets).
- etc. (Email suggestions to!)

Biblical Global Flood References and Evidence: (Don't miss Abraham and Sarah's marriage among the following powerful biblical evidence for the short-lived history of mankind!)
- Jesus, Peter, and Hebrews all mention Noah by name.
- Peter reminds us that only eight people survived the flood.
- God "did not spare the ancient world, but saved Noah, one of eight people, a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood on the world of the ungodly" (2 Peter 2:5).
- "[T]he Divine longsuffering waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water" (1 Peter 3:20).
- [Ahead of the uniformitarianism of Charles Lyell & Charles Darwin] Peter warned about the claim that "all things continue as they were from the beginning of creation. For this they willfully forget... the world that then existed perished, being flooded with water" (2 Peter 3:4-6).
- "Noah, being divinely warned of things not yet seen, moved with godly fear, prepared an ark for the saving of his household" (Hebrews 11:7).
- Jesus Himself described the world "before the flood," with the majority ignoring God, "until the day that Noah entered the ark, and... the flood came and took them all away" (Mat. 24:38-39).
- Luke also records Jesus stating that "Noah entered the ark... the flood came and destroyed them all" (Luke 17:27).
- Jesus referred to specifics in each of the first four chapters of the Bible in contexts affirming both the historicity of Genesis and its foundational significance, and He referred to chapters six and seven regarding the global flood.
- Jesus references Genesis 1 (and the parallel passage in Gen. 5) in Mat. 19:4; Mark 10:6; 13:19.
- Jesus references Genesis 2 in Mat. 19:5-6; Mark 10:7-8.
- Jesus references Genesis 3 in John 8:44
- Jesus references Genesis 4 in Mat. 23:35; Luke 11:51
- Jesus references Genesis 6 in Mat. 24:37; Luke 17:26
- Jesus references Genesis 7 in Mat. 24:38-39; Luke 17:27
- Every New Testament author refers to at least one of the first eleven chapters of Genesis.
- The context of the 68 New Testament references to the Bible's first eleven chapters affirm the historicity and foundational significance of early Genesis.
- The New Testament refers to Genesis 100 times with more than half of those referring to the first eleven chapters.
- Genesis explicitly describes a global flood which drowned all but eight humans, covered the tops of the mountains, required the building of a massive ark to save a breeding pair of all birds (unnecessary in a local flood) and every kind of land animal.
By Genesis 3, fossilized thorns show that fossil layers are not millions of years old- Moses uses the word "all" many times for all the mountains under heaven covered, all flesh died, all living things were destroyed from the earth, etc. with Genesis 6 - 9 providing dozens of instances emphasizing the flood's global and comprehensive extent.
- God promised to never flood the world again (Gen. 9:11, 15), a broken promise if Noah's flood was local.
- In Genesis 3 God explains to Adam, Because you have eaten of the tree, cursed is the ground; thorns it shall bring forth, indicating that the allegedly 100-million year-old rock layers containing fossilized thorns must be only thousands of years old, formed sometime after Adam's Fall.
- God created a perfect world so the Flood explains dangers that The Fall alone does not explain, such as stormsmeteors, asteroids, cometsEarth's radioactivityearthquakes, and volcanoes.
Graph of lifespans showing systematic decline after the floodMankind's 900-year lifespan suddenly decreased after the flood in a non-random exponential decay when the previous equilibrium rapidly fell to today's life expectancy.
- Like for Eve's children and countless of their descendants, Abraham could be blessed marrying his own sister (Sarah was his half-sister). God didn't prohibit sibling marriage until Moses (three generations beyond the Lifespan graph, right). Even though the human genome had been deteriorating since the Fall, it wasn't until the Exodus that that procreation by close relatives became dangerous for their offspring. For both parents, by then, would likely possess some of the same damaged genes. Day-age and other old-earth camps tend to reject the global flood. Many of the advocates of such things hold to a chronology that has human beings existing for tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of years before Abraham. Thus if there were no global flood and mankind had existed for eons, sibling marriage would have become dangerous tens or hundreds of thousands of years before Moses. Abraham's relationship, rather than being presented matter-of-factly as it is, would generate fear of inbred harm to his descendants. Sibling marriage would have been taboo long before any flood.
- Whereas at Babel God confused the world's unifying language, the consequences of the flood confused the world's simple and perfect calendar.
- The initial perfection of the 360-day year was lost.
- The initial perfection of the 30-day lunar month was lost.
- The initial perfection of the exact 12-month year was lost.
- The initial perfect calendar led directly to dividing the circle into 360 degrees.
- The initial perfection of the calendar inspired:
 1) the ancient sexigesimal (base 60) number systems and apparently its perfect trigonometry
 2) the second, even still in the metric age, as the primary unit of time in the International System of Units (SI) with its 60 seconds and 60 minutes
 3) the 12 hours of the day and 12 of the night as at the equinoxes (and in Jesus' teaching).
- With the ark coming to rest in the Mountains of Ararat (Gen. 8:4), as Science reported, the "ancestors of the seven ‘founder crops’ harvested by the world's first farmers have all been traced to the region of southeastern Turkey".
- The hundreds of cultures around the world that anthropologists have documented that recollect an ancient flood share uncanny similarities with Genesis in their 500 separate flood tellings, including that God judged man by sending a flood; the giving of a warning; the construction of some kind of vessel (or finding some other means of escape); a terribly severe flood occurs; the flood's severity requires sending out of birds or other scouts to determine suitability of the land; man is saved; and some of the recollections even tell of animals being saved; and then having survived man finds himself stranded in some of the recollections on a mountain or otherwise; with some remembrances ending with the offering of a sacrifice and repopulating the earth.
- Exceptions highlighted in catalogs of ancient flood recollections may be unreliabled as suggested by Funk and Wagnall’s 1950 Dictionary of Folklore which stated that the world's mythologies include a flood cataclysm, "The exceptions are Egypt and Japan..." but interestingly as CMI documents from the 1988 Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, Egypt's god Tem "was responsible for the primeval flood, which covered the entire earth and destroyed all of mankind except those in Tem’[s] boat."
- The Table of Nations in Genesis 10, unique in the annals of the world, documents the origins of the major people groups and even some of the nations of the world as descending from the few sons born to Noah's wife.


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* Evidence for Creationists for the Fountains (HPT) Flood Model: See
- Twenty Bible verses uniquely support the HPT with virtually no unique scriptural support for other models
- The perfect cosmos now has cratered Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, and Mars
- The perfect cosmos now has dangerous asteroids and comets flying around
- The perfect cosmos now has dangerous meteors like errant bullets flying around
Near vs farside of the moon- The near side of the Moon is pummeled (maria, red in the 2020 map, right) compared to the mostly "sprinkled" far side
- Many published scientific reports of evidence of biological material out in the solar system
- Transient lunar phenomena including moonquakes every year (up to magnitute 5.5)
- Transient events of the solar system (TESS) including a landslide on Comet 67P
- Comets, asteroids, and meteoroids (even with diamonds in them!) made of common Earth minerals
- Earth's "oldest" rock was found on the Moon
- Rounded boulders form in energetic (flood) flows yet thousands of rounded rocks are in comets
- The biggest crater in the solar system is the southern Aitken Basin of our own (relatively tiny) Moon
- Bronze age iron came mostly from meteorites, which rained down more frequently nearer the flood
- Space debris (micrometeorites, etc.) thins out as one travels from Earth to the asteroid belt
- Major but temporary debris clouds are held in space in Earth's Lagrange points
- The perfect (solid) Earth now has a destabilizing molten outer core
- The perfect firmament (Earth's crust) now is loaded with dangerous radioactivity
- The continental crust contains 90% of Earth's radioactivity, especially concentrated around granite 
- The swaths of missing crust in the Atlantic were eroded away by the fountains
- The mass of granitic crust below the Pacific, the continent of Zealandia, sunk when the Atlantic rose
- The Permian extinction kill off occurred simultaneously with a dramatic worldwide radioactivity event
correlated with a dramatic worldwide radioactivity event (per ASU in PNAS)
- The perfect firmament is now globally cracked by the 40k-mile long mid-oceanic ridge
- The mile-deep sediments that blanket the continents had to be eroded from below
- Regional geothermal heat correlates with each areas' (minimal) radioactivity
- Super deep earthquake epicenters occur at such depths that they stun geologists
- Earthquake depths cluster bimodally at 20 and 370 miles deep
- Few earthquakes occur at 220 miles deep because of the crossover depth
- Apollo astronauts retrieved lunar rocks that were radioactive
- The "oldest" Earth rock found on the moon :) 1/24/19 in E&PSL
- Rock two miles deep on Earth matches lunar rock "perfectly"
- Lunar soil isotopes match Earth's but don't match the solar wind nor lunar rocks
- The consistent uranium isotope ratio indicates U235 and U238 decayed from a parent element
- Pressure to create diamonds exists 62 miles below Earth's surface or via the HPT Compression Event
- The fountains mechanisms melted the outer core shrinking Earth and speeding its rotation to its 365-day year
- Fountain ejecta impacted and reduced the moon's angular momentum and distance to give it a 29.5-day orbit
- The initial perfection of the calendar inspired ancient sexigesimal (base 60) number systems and even in the age of the metric system the unit of time called the second, which is part of the International System of Units (SI), continues as the primary unit of time, with common use extending that to the 60 seconds of the minute, 60 minutes of the hour, and at the equinoxes 12 hours of the day and 12 of the night

- As reported by a surprised NASA, Earth's atmosphere (per the fountains) extends beyond the Moon.
- Part Two of Walt Brown's book ITB is filled with HPT-specific evidence. Please feel free to send along your favorite example to
- If the water for the flood came from below the crust, that's virtual proof the HPT is correct.
- Non-HPT flood models including the plate-tectonics based catastrophic plate tectonics (CPT, VCT, etc.), have no source for flood waters, so they tend to claim, absurdly, that the fountains of the deep were fountains of magma and not of water, that the flood didn't need much water, that the the earth was flooded by the water in the oceans being displaced and sloshing like tsunamis up over the continents. On this, see and this:

- Ten of the 77 creation passages in Scripture have allusions to the global flood, highlighting its connection to God's actions on Days 2 and 3.
Etc. (Email suggestions to!)

- Evidence Contrary to the Hydroplate Theory: The recent interstellar objects (presumed to be interstellar primarily by the strong evidence of their hyperbolic orbits) provide the best evidence we know of against the Hydroplate Theory. If indeed they actually are interstellar objects, they would constitute strong evidence inconsistent with the theory. See also HPT Contrary Evidence mention at

* RSR Global Flood Playlist: Click to watch RSR's full-length flood video and all the videos on our global flood playlist!

* General Pattern of Fossil Progression Matches Flood Burial: The general pattern of fossil progression is not that of an evolutionary development, as evidence by examples like the lack of backbone evolution, the whale "intermediaries" catastrophe, evolution's big squeeze, the missing transitionals, the collapse of neo-Darwinism, etc. Rather, the global pattern of buried fossils follows that of a flood burying creatures in the order of their vulnerability based on their own mobility and their habitat, from riverbeds, lakebeds, and seabeds, to the highlands. Initially, in small region by small region in what we call...
- Precambrian layers, the lower-terrain bottom-dwelling worms, algae, bacteria, trilobites, etc., suffocated when the Flood disturbed their habitat. Then, the in-rushing floodwater sediments buried the...
Paleozoic Cambrian layer's bottom-dwelling hallucigenia, wiwaxia, etc., and they're somewhat more mobile trilobites, canadaspis, crustaceans and other arthropods including shrimp and lobsters, horseshoe crabs and scorpions. (As National Geographic put it, "The demise of trilobites... may be connected with the spread of jawed fishes.") The...
- Paleozoic Ordovician to Devonian to Permian layers hold the vast cemeteries of the fishes with the Devonian layers revealing the first horestail wetlands plants and liverworts (which also grew on wet rocks). And rising through the strata layers, the turbulence and sediment finally overcame the stronger rays and sharks. Then the...
- Mesozoic Triassic layers saw the marine depopulation of the "Permian" extinction during which 90% of marine creatures died in a "relatively" short timeperiod, along with beginning burial of the ichthyosaurs, the weaker plesiosaurs, and the smaller mammals...
- Mesozoic Jurassic and Cretaceous layers buried the stronger swimmers like dolphins and mosasaurs, and the amphibians like toads and frogs that lived near low-lying shorelines. As sediments began to cover habitats of increasing elevation, flowering plants and grasses were buried, and a hierarchy of animals with increasing ability to flee such as reptiles, including the dinosaurs, and the mammals. (Remember, 434 mammal species have been excavated from dinosaur layers and, obviously, at least some mammals ate dinosaurs.) Birds of course, generally speaking, averted the floodwaters better than most other creatures.
- Human Fossils: The human footprint track in McKee, Kentucky in allegedly 300 million year old Pennsylvanian sandstone is the kind of "out-of-place" fossil that the evolutionary worldview says shouldn't exist. As with many other species, paleontologists thought the Wollemi pine died out two million years ago and that the coelacanth fish went extinct 66 million years ago, until both species have been found alive. Such living fossils demonstrate that an entire species could easily leave no trace in the fossil record through alleged eons of geologic time (like the gross-looking hagfish for that matter). Further, the scientific community has avoided research into apparent find of out-of-place human fossils and artifacts, making the "acceptable" documentation of such difficult. RSR expects to update this topic in 2020.
- RSR Prediction: Remembering that by liquefaction, dead organisms were to some degree sorted even after burial in wet sediments, regardless, and without searching the literature, RSR "predicted" on March 24, 2019 that:
- fossil eggs will be found somewhat lower in strata than their hatched siblings; and that
- a similar flood burial pattern as above would emerge, generally, for insects, with crawlers buried in lower strata and flying insects higher, and look for other patterns in the literature, for nests, hives, etc. (such as ground nesting creatures found higher than their nests). 2019 & 2020 Updates: For footprints systematically appearing "millions of years before" the creatures that made them, see this affirmed by Dr. Marcus Ross, associate professor of geology, and for the same in the Grand Canyon, see this from creationist Dr. Andrew Snelling, and for spores appearing "50 million years before" the plants that made them, see the 2010 paper in New Phytologist.

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