* How Did Radioactive Decay Start in Earth's Crust? (Re-run during recovery from a minor accident while Bob was out boating. "See you guys, Lord-willing, next week!") Real Science Radio co-hosts Bob Enyart and Fred Williams describe Walt Brown's Hydroplate Theory from his book, In the Beginning, and Dr. Brown's discovery of the origin of Earth's radioactivity. Ways to learn about the origin of Earth's radioactivity:
- Listen to today's program (above)
- Read this written show page
- Read Bob's brief 2019 RMCF articles Part 1 & Part 2
- Read Walt's theory right here at hpt.rsr.org
- See this visually just below in Bryan Nickel's video tutorial
- Read Walt's theory starting on page 380 of the ITB 9th Edition pdf.
- God created a paradise for mankind so no radioactivity would have existed on the original Earth because radioactive decay can cause birth defects, disease, and death with lowered lifespans.
- For ex., uranium formed on Earth, as evidence by its worldwide ratio (see below)
- The fourth state of matter, beyond solid, liquid, and gas, is plasma (lightning, neon lights, etc.) which is like a gas but with the electrons stripped away.
- By the piezoelectric effect, pressure on quartz produces an electric voltage and the granite in the Earth's crust is more than one-fourth quartz.
- Z-pinched electrical pulses produce nuclear combustion by stripping away electrons and then squeezing together nuclei producing radioactive and other elements.
- Decay rates speed up by a billion times or more when half lives are measured for atoms stripped of their electrons; for example when ionized the 41-billion year half life of rhenium's beta decay speeds up to 33 years.
- Atmospheric lightning produces new isotopes (most of which decay within minutes).
2017 Update: Nature reports that lightning storms "trigger atmospheric photonuclear reactions" that produce isotopes. [In 2010 Dr. Brown published his Radioactivity theory including references to little noticed research showing that atmospheric lightning produces radioisotopes (and also explains the Oklo Natural "Reactor").]
- Earthquake Lights: Earthquakes produce piezoelectric lightning flashes in the ground and also, coming out of the ground. (See also rsr.org/eql.)
2017 Update: Twitter video of this phenomenon during Mexico's deadly magnitude 8.1 quake. [Thanks to RSR London listener Remy for the heads up.]
2016 Update: Video of earthquake lights surface, this time after New Zealand's magnitude 7.8 quake epicentered between Christchurch and Wellington.
2014 Update: A paper in the journal Seismological Research Letters is reported on in USA Today's Scientists find records of rare 'earthquake lights'.
2013 Update: This may be the phenomena causing the apparent pre-quake disturbances in the ionosphere that led scientists to consider a possible earthquake warning system, as reported in 2008 by BBC News, and pursued by the U.K. and Russia in 2011 and generating continued interest and research in 2013 in a European Geophysical Union conference presentation, and here with RSR's 2014 interview with QuakeFinder.
- The journal Nature reports that an average earthquake produces hundreds of millions of volts.
- During the upheaval of the global flood pressure in the crust produced enormous voltages that produced plasma surges in the crust.
- Those voltages smashed together the nuclei of atoms to create, in the crust, radioactive elements and massive, instantaneous apparent radioactive decay.
- Missing uniform distribution of earth's radioactivity: From our RSR debate with theoretical physicist (emphasis on the theoretical), Lawrence Krauss... The theory of chemical evolution claims that all of our radioactive elements were created in the explosion of stars, but that would predict a relatively uniform distribution on Earth. However, in an otherwise contentious interview, Krauss agreed with Enyart's statement on air that 90% of Earth's radioactivity (uranium, thorium, potassium-40, etc.) is located in the continental crust, and Krauss added, a mystery for him, that it tends to concentrate around granite! That is, that 90% is not in the mantle nor in the enormous amount of the crust which lies under the oceans, but our planet's radioactivity is concentrated in 1/3rd of 1% of the Earth's mass, in the continental crust. (Further, the release of the crust's heat has not yet reached a steady state. And "hotspot" lava allegedly arising from the mantel doesn't support any claim of a lot of deep radioactivity.) Krauss offered a partial explanation: that uranium was originally evenly distributed throughout (an alleged) molten earth but being a large atom, it floated toward the surface. The bias of this physicist led him to forget, apparently, that it is density, and not size, that causes things to float. Uranium is 70% more dense than lead, almost as dense as gold, and one of the most dense elements (excluding atheists and other manmade phenomena). Further, for argument's sake, that would only explain the relative absence of radioactivity deep in the Earth, but would not explain uranium's distancing itself from the mantle and from the oceanic crust, nor its affinity for the continents and even, of all things, for granite. Further, under Krauss' belief in the widespread falsehood that the planet was once molten, if so, then the gold in the crust should have sunk to the core! The creationists, on the other hand, have a theory based on observational science as to why radioactivity is concentrated around granite.
- Absurd consistency of uranium isotope ratio IF formed in space: Consider this from Walt Brown's Origin of Earth's Radioactivity chapter:
The isotopes of each chemical element have almost constant ratios with each other. ... Why is the ratio of 235U to 238U in uranium ore deposits so constant almost everywhere on Earth? One very precise study showed that the ratio is 0.0072842, with a standard deviation of only 0.000017. [There's less than one U235 atom, with its 700M year half-life, for every hundred U238s, with their 4.5B year half-lives.] Obviously, the more time that elapses between the formation of the various isotopes (such as 235U and 238U) and the farther they are transported to their current resting places, the more varied those ratios should be. The belief that these isotopes formed in a supernova explosion millions of light-years away and billions of years before the Earth formed and somehow collected in small ore bodies in a fixed ratio is absurd. Powerful explosions would have separated the lighter isotopes from the heavier isotopes.
Some radioisotopes simultaneously produce two or more daughters. When that happens, the daughters have very precise ratios to each other, called branching ratios or branching fractions. Uranium isotopes are an example, because they are daughter products of some even heavier element. Recall that the Proton-21 Laboratory has produced superheavy elements that instantly decayed. Also, the global flux of neutrons during the flood provided nuclei with enough neutrons to reach their maximum stability. Therefore, isotope ratios for a given element are fixed. Had the flux of neutrons originated in outer space, we would not see these constant ratios worldwide. Because these neutrons originated at many specific points in the globe-encircling crust, these fixed ratios are global.
- Waltbrownium, the IUPAC, and the Nobel Prize in Physics: The element that decayed into daughter products U-235 and U-238 is the naturally occurring though now-extinct waltbrownium. Symbol Wb.
Atomic number (Z) > 118
Atomic weight of > 294
> 118 protons, > 118 electrons
> 176 neutrons
Half-life perhaps ~10 ns.
Waltbrownium is the heaviest chemical element yet discovered (though indirectly). It is in, or above, the post-Actinide series. Wb is not [yet] an IUPAC officially named element but has been preliminarily named, here, by RSR. The identification of this element should earn its discoverer a Nobel Prize in Physics after he identified the evidence for its existence and the experimental evidence for its formation. The uniform uranium ratio provides the evidence to confirm that waltbrownium existed on the Earth. (This evidence provides as much, or even more, confirmation as neutrinos provide for solar fusion.) Further, the thousands of Proton-21 Laboratory experiments in the Ukraine (and similar experiments in the U.S. at Sandia Nat'l Labs, Russia, Germany, and in Sweden at the Dept. for Applied Physics and Electronics, Umea University) provide the experimental evidence for Wb formation. This element was predicted in January 2012 when Brown, Ph.D. from MIT in mechanical engineering, published the two paragraphs immediately above. Dr. Brown himself has since termed this element Proto-Uranium.
- Non-HPT flood models (including Catastrophic Plate Tectonics) have a "heat problem" including because their accelerated decay explanation of Earth's radioactive elements (presented in its R.A.T.E. project) would melt much of the Earth, they admit, if it had actually happened as they envision and the heat was not suspernaturally removed. Regarding CPT for example, see RSR's Global Flood video just below, beginning at 25:29. The HPT on the other hand explains the origin of Earth's crustal radioactive materials in a way that removes heat! Wikipedia's nuclear binding energy article accurately explains: "For elements that weigh more than iron (a nucleus with 26 protons), the fusion process no longer releases energy. In even heavier nuclei energy is consumed, not released, by combining similar sized nuclei."
- Carbon 14 Dating Subject to Less Havoc: From rsr.org/14c: "Dr. Brown's theory for the origin of Earth's crustal radioactivity intrinsically explains the unreliability of heavy element radiometric dating of Earth rocks while recognizing Carbon 14 dating as relatively accurate (adjusting for the old earthers' erroneous assumption that 14c levels have been constant over the past 100,000 years). In the HPT, what appears to be accelerated radioactive decay applies to elements in the crust and inside the subterranean water chamber (i.e., beneath the firmament). This effect would not have applied to an element in the atmosphere, such as 14c. So as a result of widespread misunderstanding of Earth's history, old-earth geologists contend with infamously contradictory million- and billion-year radiometric dates, whereas carbon dating is not subject to the same extreme physical forces that play havoc with other radiometric dating methods."
* Post-show Update: Physics experiments are demonstrating how all elements, including gold and silver, and radioactive elements like uranium and thorium, can be formed in the lab (and in the crust of the Earth as explained by Dr. Walt Brown's Hydropate Theory). Just click and search (ctrl-f) for the word: Kiev, to find the sidebar that begins like this: "Since February 2000, thousands of sophisticated experiments at the Proton-21 Electrodynamics Research Laboratory (Kiev, Ukraine) have demonstrated nuclear combustion by producing traces of all known chemical elements and their stable isotopes..."
Today's Resource: We invite you to enjoy, and then pass along to friends and family, RSR's...
The Global Flood and the Hydroplate Theory
Blu-ray, 2-DVD Set or HD Download
Real Science Radio co-host Bob Enyart presents the scientific evidence for Dr. Walt Brown’s model of the global flood, along with the relevant biblical material. Enyart also discusses Brown's opponents and contrasts both the vapor canopy and catastrophic plate tectonics with the hydroplate theory.
1. Walt Brown, Creation Leaders, and Scripture
2. Hydroplate Theory & Scientific Evidence
3. Hydroplates vs. Plate Tectonics
Bonus: Origin of Earth's Radioactivity
Get the Blu-ray or DVD for $24.99 or the HD video download for $19.99.
* RSR's Favorite Periodic Table: Atheist Michael Dayah developed the web's coolest interactive periodic table of elements. We invite you to enjoy his ptable.com while you pray for Michael! (And don't forget to fiddle with the slider.)
* RSR Callers Wayne and Darren about Radioactivity: In 2011, Wayne from Nebraska and Darren from St. George, Utah asked Bob about radioactive decay. They talked about:
- Carbon 14 able to date things only to thousands of years
- Zircon crystals retaining so much helium they disprove old dates.
* See Bryan Nickel's Tutorial: Mechanical engineer Bryan Nickel has produced the best video explanation of The Hydroplate Theory's Origin of Earth's Radioactivity!
* Correcting Google, et al: This seems minor but this erroneous simplification is widespread. Google does it too. In this screenshot from Googling: nuclear fusion, their info states, "a nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei of low atomic number fuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release [OR ABSORBTION] of energy." (Google continues this error as of October 2019 whereas Wikipedia corrected it in their Nuclear fusion article on Sept. 4, 2018.)
This same error appears frequently including in the the first minute of a Modern Physics video on the YouTube channel High School Science Physics Explained. It's for high school students but still, that doesn't justify the overstatement at the beginning that says nuclear fusion, "is the production of energy by combining two smaller atoms into a larger atom." Nuclear fusion, as they know, also consumes energy for produced nuclei heavier than 60 AMU. By the way, as this mistake is commonly made, this correction can be posted to forums and linked back here via this rsr.org/fusion-erroneous-simplification.
Thanks for the great science education. Please allow one correction though. At 7:20 you say that it's thought that heavy elements are made in supernova explosions. Science News explains that "simulations show that these explosions have an insufficient quantity of neutrons" (March 2013, p. 16-17). Previously, the National Academy of Sciences issued a 2003 report titled, Eleven Science Questions for the New Century, they included question #10, “How were the heavy elements from iron to uranium made?” Then the journal Nature reported that actually looking at a supernova explosion provides astronomers "no spectroscopic evidence that r-process [heavy] elements have truly been produced" (Rosswog, 2013, p. 536; see also Physics Reports, 2007; Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2011; and Physical Review Letters, 2013). (Studynova, I'd provide a link to my site where I link directly to all these sources, but I'm afraid I'd get booted for spamming. :) Anyway, the supernova theory has been seen deficient for years now and that has brought in a replacement, the merger of black holes with neutron stars or neutron/neutron star collisions. Of course, those theories also have the problem of the uneven distribution of uranium, thorium, etc., in Earth's crust and mantle, with radioactivity located primarily in the continental crust (as Lawrence Krauss admitted to me in an otherwise contentious interview), and that, preferentially near granite. There are also the various unexpected isotope inconsistencies between the sun, moon, earth, etc. See more at rsr.org/bb#supernova.
By the way, as this mistake is commonly made, this correction can be posted to forums and linked back here via this rsr.org/supernova-heavy-elements-error.
* The Flood Created Earth's Isotope Variants: Selah.
Today’s Resource: You can enjoy the 6-disc standard audio CD set The Hydroplate Theory & Dr. Walt Brown on the Air or get the entire set on a single MP3 CD, both of which contain eleven radio programs. Bob Enyart also highly recommends Dr. Walt Brown's fabulous book, In the Beginning! Order by clicking the link, or calling us at 800-8Enyart (800 836-9278)!
* The Written Debate with Atheist Aron Ra and Creationist Bob Enyart: The creation/evolution debate on the British website League of Reason continues with Bob's post in Round Four.
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Street Creds: On Sept. 1, 2017 RSR said on air that there was a significant likelihood that the Florence flyby may show that it has "one or two moons". Five days later NASA announced and the science media headlines reported "Asteroid Florence has Two Moons." See more at rsr.org/predictions.