RSR's List of Problems with "Lucy" as an Upright Walker

Often positioned to minimize sloping face

Lucy's Non-Upright Walking Definitive Chimp-like Features: The infamous alleged "human ancestor" who allegedly walked upright had:
- "locking wrists" for knuckle walking
- an inner ear, for balance, oriented like knuckle-walking chimps  
- the skull attachment for the inner ear like knuckle-walking chimps
- curved hands surprisingly (to some) similar to tree-climbing chimps
- long and curved toe bones, even by ape standards 
- a sloping chimp-like face fronting a chimp-sized brain
(and finally, from our you-just-can't-make-this-stuff-up file)
- a 2016 autopsy that reports death by falling 46 feet out of a tree!

* Lucy on the Ground all Splintered: Sad, but true, from the journal Nature, even though Lucy has been claimed to be an upright walker, "It is therefore ironic that her death can be attributed to injuries resulting from a fall, probably out of a tall tree, thus offering unusual evidence for the presence of arborealism in this species." :) Decades ago Bob read Donald Johanson's book, Lucy, and recalls that Johanson named her after the popular Beatles song. Using that name, his name for this fossil, the Nature paper continued, "The Pliocene fossil ‘Lucy’ (Australopithecus afarensis) was discovered in the Afar region of Ethiopia in 1974 and is among the oldest and most complete fossil hominin skeletons discovered. Here we propose, on the basis of close study of her skeleton, that her cause of death was a vertical deceleration event or impact following a fall from considerable height that produced compressive and hinge (greenstick) fractures in multiple skeletal elements. Impacts that are so severe as to cause concomitant fractures usually also damage internal organs; together, these injuries are hypothesized to have caused her death."

* Expert Witness Dan Biddle on RSR: Real Science Radio host Bob Enyart interviews Dr. Dan Biddle about Lucy. Dan has Ph.D. in the behavioral sciences and has worked as an expert witness. Dr. Biddle more recently founded an organization focused on reaching California public school biology students, Genesis Apologetics. Dr. Biddle's organization, which includes the amazingly talented Pat Roy, has produced a highly recommended, dramatized YouTube video series that begins with a great classrom scene, viewable at and over at And right here, at, you can see Dr. Biddle's webinar on Lucy: 


Dan Biddle, Ph.D. in behavioral science, expert witness
Expert witness Dan Biddle

* Daniel Biddle on RSR: Dr. Biddle has worked as an expert consultant or witness in over one hundred state and federal cases in the areas of research methodologies and analysis. As the president of Genesis Apologetics, Daniel equips youth pastors, parents, and students with biblical answers for evolutionary teaching in public schools. Daniel is also on the Board of Directors for the International Association for Creation. Dr. Biddle has trained thousands of students in Biblical creation and evolution and is the author of several Creation-related publications. He has a Ph.D. in Organizational Psychology from Alliant University in San Francisco, California, an M.A. in Organizational Psychology from Alliant, and a B.S. in Organizational Behavior from the University of San Francisco.

* Update on Btw, Google ranks Real Science Radio highly for various important search terms! For example, our article on God and time, at, has become a modern classic! If you search online for: Is God outside of time, or just: God outside of time, you'll find that Google ranks us near the top of the first page out of millions of possible pages. Even if you Google only: outside of time, or: God's relationship to time, or God time, you should find us ranked right up there on that first page. RSR has just updated the last section of that article, titled Misconception 4: God cannot cross an actual infinity.